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 AIDS is world wide rapid spreading disease in   21 th  century. It is rapidly spreading  in all the part of world. In whole world  various aids research  centers and WHO doing work for the  preventive control, management of HIV positive patient .


AIDS is abbreviation of Acquired  Immune deficiency  Syndrome.viz.
Acquire-means acquired from sexual transmission .
Immune-immunity of a body
Deficiency- means loss
Syndrome -means group of symptoms. In short AIDS  spread due to spread of HIV(Human Immune Deficiency  Virus  with semen, vaginal fluids and blood of  HIV POSITIVE patient.


AIDS was recognised as  as clinical entity in 1981 and within the next few year important advances were made in the understanding of its epidemology. There are two types of HIV-The most common HIV 1 and a more recently recognised virus (in west Africa) called HIV 2.
The virus replicates, it is actively dividing, remains in lymphoid cell in a latent state that can be activated. The virus has a unique  ability to destroy human T4 helper cells, a subset of  human T- lymphocytes.The virus  able to spread throughout the body.


a) by sexual transmission
b) Blood contact
c) Maternal foetal transmission


while the natural history of HIV infection is not yet  fully known.Current data suggest that the infection period s long (upto  six year of more ) from HIV infection to the development of Aids.


Clinical manifestation of HIV infection have been classified into four broad categories:

1)Initial infection with the virus and development of antibodies.
2)Asymptomatic carrier state
3) AIDS -Related complex(ARC)

Antibodies to HIV can usually  be detected 2-8 weeks after initial infection. All who are infected or without symptoms can transmit the                                                                                                              virus to others.

b) ASYMPTOMATIC CARRIER STATE OF HIV:   Infected people have antibodies, but no overt sign of disease. Lab test may show a reduced no. of T-HELPER lymphatocytes. It is not clear how long the asymptomatic carrier state lasts.

A person with ARC has illness caused by damage to the immune system. But without the opportunistic infections and cancer associated C-AIDS, they exhibit one or more  following clinical signs,chronic diarrhea  for longer than one month, fatigue, malaise, loss of weight, fever, night sweat, generalised lymphadenopathy  and who have decreased no.of T-helper lymphadenocytes  are considered to have AIDS - Related  Complex.

Aids is ends of  HIV infection. It is characterised  by life threatening opportunistic infection.


Clinical : the clinical case definition for adult AIDS  envisages the existance  of at least two major signs associated with at least one minor sign.

1)weight loss  (10 percent of body weight )
2)Chronic Diarrhoea for longer than one month
3)Prolonged fever for longer than 1 month ( intermittent or constant)


1)Persistant  cough for 1 month
2)Generalised lymphadenopathy
3) Generalised pruritus  and dermatitis
4) Recurrent herpes zoster
5) Oropharyngeal candidiasis
6) Repeated common infection
(Repeated common infection
(Otitis, pharyngitis, pneumonia)

       AIDS TEST

2)WESTERN BLOT TEST(Usually a western blot test is a highly specific test it is based on detecting specific antibody to viral core protein (P-4) and envelop glygoprotein(GP41).


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