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Showing posts from May, 2014

Renal regulation of solutes- electrolytes and metabolic waste.

Electrolyte Balance Changes in the concentration of electrolytes in the body may be due to changes in the amount of water or the amount of electrolytes. Sodium is the most common of the cations that exists in the extracellular fluid. As it is excreted through urine, it's balance in body is maintained by kidney. When the amount of sodium is decreased, aldosterone production is increased and an increased amount of sodium is re-absorbed by kidney. The  secretion of the aldosterone is influenced by ACTH from Pituitary gland by a fall in the concentration of sodium in the blood and by renin produced in the kidney. Water Balance Water constituents about 60 percent of adult human body weight. It is distributed in the body in 3 main  compartments, Blood Plasma-   5% of body weight. Interstitial Fluid- 11% of body weight. Intracellular Fluid- 44% of body weight.                                          Water is taken into the body through the alimentary canal and s

Advantage and Disadvantage of Dialyser reuse for next Dialysis

Advantages   1.  Allows more widespread use of costier dialyser(e.g.high KoF, high flux synthetic membrance with their benefits). 2.  Reduced exposure to residual industrial chemicals used in the manufacture of the new dialyser. 3. Reduced incidence of intradialytic symptoms(controversial). 4.  Enhansed dialyser biocompatibility or reduced immune system activation (with unsubstituted  cellulose membrances and  when bleach is not used in  reprocessing). 5.  Reduction in treatment cost. Disadvantages 1.  Potential for exposure of patient and  personnel to chemicals. 2.  Potential for bacterial or endotoxin contamination of dialyser. 3.  Potential for loss of dialyser mass transfer (clearance) and ultrafiltration capacity. 4.  Potential for transmission of an infectious agents from one dialyser to another during  reprocessing.

Robot in the Service of Mankind

 A robot working as a watchman and even calling the police when required. A robot serving tea for you and removing trays from your table. Just imagine a scenario ! A nursing robot holding  a patient in its arms, washing  him and then putting him back in bed.  A  robot washing  clothes, arranging tables even taking your dog out for a walk. A robot cleaning and polishing the floor  faster than a human worker. Robots  playing  cassette tapes or pianos , producing fascinating  sounds, telling stories to entertain children. Robots helping in agricultural operation - a mobile cybernetic pig-tender, an automatic milker, a fruit -picking gardener robot and  the sheep-shearing  robot.                          The Czech word ' robota ' means servitude or forced labour. It is because of this characterisation of  a robot in capek's play that people began to visualise a robot  as a monstrous human-like machine, something  to be afraid of.  Such fear  is dipicted  in mary Shelly&#

Retail Industry

The retailing industry covers a wide range of businesses like department stores, supermarkets, mail order firms, local shops and some manufacturing companies that sell directly to the public. even  when goods are sold electronically, that is also considered as retailing.The retail sector includes all shops and stores that sell goods to shoppers, i.e., the ultimate consumers. The shoppers buy the products for personal and not business use. Supermarkets are usually grocery stores that sell an array of fresh and preserved food, take-out meals etc. and some also have exclusive departments for baked goods and confectionary, pharmacies, florists, and even health and beauty products. Large supermarkets even have non-food items such as household goods, greeting cards, and may even house a food court.                                         Department stores  normally stock apparel, home furnishings, major household appliances, etc. Different types of merchandise are normally arranged in

Career in public relation

Public  Relation as a means of influencing attitudes can greatly expedite the social adaptations required for our material  advancement by influencing public opinion. changes are being felt in various spheres of society, particularly in the life styles and attitudes, for the current changes in society are basically because of shifts in public attitudes whether they are in business, education,science or technology.  Public  Relation  are rapidly gaining  attention worldwide.Public Relation  is synonymous with management job, and monitoring, evaluating and maintaining mutual relations and creating an understanding between an organisation and the public.                                                         THE JOB     How  The public perceives you or your organization is an important factor for  one's market standing and this precisely is the job of public relation  officer. PROs play crucial role in creating  and maintaining relationships within as well as outside the org