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Kidney failure causes

Acute Renal Failure Acute kidney diseases are characterized by abrupt onset of  kidney related symptoms with or without decrease in kidney function. Which come up in  day to  week time and must often recovers in 3 months period. It  is a clinical syndrome  characterized by abrupt onset and rapid deterioration of kidney function(GFR), progressing over day to weeks resulting in accumulation of waste products like urea,creatinine and potassium etc.This must often recovers fully. Acute kidney failure is commonly associated with aliguria(urine output of( <500 ml/24hrs) In  small number of patients  however urine output may be normal or increased                                               Causes of Acute Renal Failure  Pre renal acute kidney injuries:  Decreased blood supply to kidney. Abnormality before kidney: heart failure or condition with loss of blood volume due to hemorrhage. Intra renal acute kidney injuries :  abnormalities within kidney.  Post renal acu

Renal regulation of solutes- electrolytes and metabolic waste.

Electrolyte Balance Changes in the concentration of electrolytes in the body may be due to changes in the amount of water or the amount of electrolytes. Sodium is the most common of the cations that exists in the extracellular fluid. As it is excreted through urine, it's balance in body is maintained by kidney. When the amount of sodium is decreased, aldosterone production is increased and an increased amount of sodium is re-absorbed by kidney. The  secretion of the aldosterone is influenced by ACTH from Pituitary gland by a fall in the concentration of sodium in the blood and by renin produced in the kidney. Water Balance Water constituents about 60 percent of adult human body weight. It is distributed in the body in 3 main  compartments, Blood Plasma-   5% of body weight. Interstitial Fluid- 11% of body weight. Intracellular Fluid- 44% of body weight.                                          Water is taken into the body through the alimentary canal and s

Advantage and Disadvantage of Dialyser reuse for next Dialysis

Advantages   1.  Allows more widespread use of costier dialyser(e.g.high KoF, high flux synthetic membrance with their benefits). 2.  Reduced exposure to residual industrial chemicals used in the manufacture of the new dialyser. 3. Reduced incidence of intradialytic symptoms(controversial). 4.  Enhansed dialyser biocompatibility or reduced immune system activation (with unsubstituted  cellulose membrances and  when bleach is not used in  reprocessing). 5.  Reduction in treatment cost. Disadvantages 1.  Potential for exposure of patient and  personnel to chemicals. 2.  Potential for bacterial or endotoxin contamination of dialyser. 3.  Potential for loss of dialyser mass transfer (clearance) and ultrafiltration capacity. 4.  Potential for transmission of an infectious agents from one dialyser to another during  reprocessing.

What is dialysis

Dialysis  is process in which the removal of extra fluid and nitrogenous waste from patients blood stream to maintain electrolytes balance in  the body of Kidney failure patients. Types of Dialysis   1.  Hemodialysis The  process of hemodialysis  is an intense, intermittent therapy. Major dialytic function(clearance of solute and fluid removal or ultrafiltration) are accomplished over relatively short time periods.                Hemodialysis  require direct access to the circulation either via a native arteriovenous fistula or arteriovenous graft usually made of polytetrafluroethylene.A large bore intravenous device attached to intravascular catheter. blood is pumped through hallow fibers of an artificial kidney(dialyser)bathed with a solution of favourable chemical composition. It  uses bicarbonate to provide base equivalent. 2.   Peritoneal Dialysis The process of peritoneal dialysis in which involves the transport of solutes and water across a peritoneal membrane tha

IMMUNIZATION OF A BODY AGAINST DISEASES

Immunization is very essential for every human being to fight against varies diseases like Poliomyelitis, Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus, Measles, Rubella, Mumps, Hepatitis B, Typhoid, Cholera etc. 1)  BCG VACCINATION: Bacillus calmette Guerin is an attenuated strain of mycobacterium tuberculosis used as live vaccine against tuberculosis. BCG is administered intradermally over the deltoid muscle. The dosage is 0.05 ml in newborn or 0.1 ml in all other ages.                            2.  POLIOMYELITIS      Inactivated (killed) poliovirus (IPV) developed by Salt ,or  live attenuated (oral) poliovirus vaccine (OPV) developed by sabin are used as world wide for the prevention of paralytic poliomyelitis. both  vaccines are usually supplied as a trivalent antigen containing 3 types of polioviruses. In many countries  including India  2 drops are preferred. In USA the dose is 0.5ml. The 1 st dose of OPV may be givento the neonate  for individual protection 5 doses of OPV are recomme

AIDS RAPID SPREADING WORLD WIDE DISEASE

 AIDS is world wide rapid spreading disease in   21 th  century. It is rapidly spreading  in all the part of world. In whole world  various aids research  centers and WHO doing work for the  preventive control, management of HIV positive patient . AIDS, WHAT IS AIDS? AIDS is abbreviation of Acquired  Immune deficiency  Syndrome.viz. Acquire-means acquired from sexual transmission . Immune-immunity of a body Deficiency- means loss Syndrome -means group of symptoms. In short AIDS  spread due to spread of HIV(Human Immune Deficiency  Virus  with semen, vaginal fluids and blood of  HIV POSITIVE patient.             AIDS, EPIDEMOLOGY OF AIDS AIDS was recognised as  as clinical entity in 1981 and within the next few year important advances were made in the understanding of its epidemology. There are two types of HIV-The most common HIV 1 and a more recently recognised virus (in west Africa) called HIV 2. The virus replicates, it is actively dividing, remains in lym

HOW TO TAKE CARE OF KIDNEY

Keep fit and active. Keep regular control of your blood suger level. Monitor your blood pressure. Eat healthy and keep your weight in check. Do not smoke. Do not take over the counter pills on a regular basis. Check your kidney function if you have over or more of the 'high risk factors'.              ARE YOU  AT RISK ? Do you have high blood pressure ? Do you suffer from diabetes? Are you overweight? Do not smoke ? Are you over 50 years? Do you have a family history of kidney disease? Do you suffer from other kidney disease?    If you have one or more of these criteria,you could be at risk,consult your  doctor.