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IMMUNIZATION OF A BODY AGAINST DISEASES

Immunization is very essential for every human being to fight against varies diseases like Poliomyelitis, Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus, Measles, Rubella, Mumps, Hepatitis B, Typhoid, Cholera etc.

1) BCG VACCINATION:















Bacillus calmette Guerin is an attenuated strain of mycobacterium tuberculosis used as live vaccine against tuberculosis. BCG is administered intradermally over the deltoid muscle. The dosage is 0.05 ml in newborn or 0.1 ml in all other ages.

 

                         2. POLIOMYELITIS

    





Inactivated (killed) poliovirus (IPV) developed by Salt ,or  live attenuated (oral) poliovirus vaccine (OPV) developed by sabin are used as world wide for the prevention of paralytic poliomyelitis. both  vaccines are usually supplied as a trivalent antigen containing 3 types of polioviruses. In many countries  including India  2 drops are preferred. In USA the dose is 0.5ml. The 1 st dose of OPV may be givento the neonate  for individual protection 5 doses of OPV are recommended for primary immunization according to national schedule.

 

                         3. DIPTHTHERIA

  





Primary immunization requires 3 doses at interval of 4,6,or  8 weeks the 1 st booster is recommended during the 2 nd year of life.

  

                          4. PERTUSIS
















The pertusis vaccine is usually given in the form of DPT vaccine .3 doses are recommended at 4-8 week interval , commencing at 1-3 month of age so that primary immunization is completed by 6 month of age.



  5)  TENANUS

3 doses of DPT vaccine are recommended (at 1 month interval each) for primary immunization followed by boosters at approximately 18 month and 5 year of age .Subsequent TT boosters are recommended at 5 to 10 years interval.


 6)  MEASLES

Live attenuated virus is used as the vaccine. In developing countries the recommended maximum age is  9 month. 85 to 95 percent those vaccinated at the age of 9 month develop antibodies in adequate titer.


7)  RUBELLA

3 attenuated virus strains are available, namely HPV 77, Cendehill an RA 27/3. All of them induce antibody response  in over 95 percent of recipient.


  8)  MUMPS

In developing countries, the priority for mumps prophylaxis is low on account of many other more pressing priorities. The vaccine consist of live attenuated mumps virus. It is usually combined with measle and rubella vaccine into one  trivalent vaccine (MMR). Mumps vaccine for MMR may given after 12-15 month of age.

 

NATIONAL IMMUNISATION SCHEDULE(INDIA) 

 




• Birth-BCG and OPV  Zero Dose.

             • 6 Weak-BCG(if not given at Birth.

          • 10 Weak -DPT2 and OPV2.

                              • 14 Weak-DPDT3 and OPV3.

                                        • 18-24 Weak-DPT and              OPV(Booster Dose ).

                                                    • Year -DT.

                                                                        • 10 Year and 16 Year-TT

                                                                                                 

IMMUNIZATION IN PREGNANCY

Immunization in pregnant women is very essential for mother-foetus  heath.

 

      Doses of  in pregnancy

  •  Early pregnancy- TT-1 and after 1 month TT 2.

     



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