Skip to main content

Renal regulation of solutes- electrolytes and metabolic waste.

Electrolyte Balance

Changes in the concentration of electrolytes in the body may be due to changes in the amount of water or the amount of electrolytes. Sodium is the most common of the cations that exists in the extracellular fluid. As it is excreted through urine, it's balance in body is maintained by kidney. When the amount of sodium is decreased, aldosterone production is increased and an increased amount of sodium is re-absorbed by kidney.

The  secretion of the aldosterone is influenced by ACTH from Pituitary gland by a fall in the concentration of sodium in the blood and by renin produced in the kidney.

Water Balance

Water constituents about 60 percent of adult human body weight. It is distributed in the body in 3 main  compartments,

Blood Plasma-  

5% of body weight.

Interstitial Fluid-

11% of body weight.

Intracellular Fluid-

44% of body weight.


Water is taken into the body through the alimentary canal and small quantity is also produced by the metabolic process in the body. Water is excreted from the body in the expired air, as a constituent of faeces, as sweat, through the skin and through urine.
The amount of water excreted  in expired air and in faeces is fairly constant. Water excreted in the sweat in associated with the maintenance of body temperature. The balance between intake and output is maintained by the kidney. Normally, fluid output is directly related to fluid intake.Water loss through kidney  is rigorously controlled and varies from1000to 1500 ml in 24 hours.This output is mainly controlled the antidiuretic hormone(ADH).This hormone is produced and released into the blood by the posterior labe of pituitary gland.

Although the antidiuretic hormone is an important mean by by  which the water balance of the body is maintained, it is not the only one. IF there is an excess amount of any dissolved substance in the blood. It is excreted through the kidney  and excess of water is excreted with it e.g. in case of untreated diabetes mellitus. Also if excess amount  of electrolytes have to be excreted  from the body. The amount of water required for this purpose is increased.This may lead to dehydration but it is usually accompanied by acute thirst and increased water intake.

Maintenance of Blood pressure

The juxtaglomerular cells in the kidney are responsible for this this function. When  the blood pressure decreases, It causes release of hormone renin by the kidney. Renin react with globulin in the blood and form angiotensin which in turn  forms angiotensin-1

It stimulates adrenal cortex  to produce  the hormone aldosterone which causes increased re-absorption of sodium. This is fallowed by reabsorption of water. The blood volume increased.


Popular posts from this blog

Various Steps in Buying Process

Before discussing the buying process, it is important to recognize that various buying situations will have an influence on this process. First of all, consumers are likely to display various  levels of commitment, depending on the nature of the purchase. It has been suggested that there are three such levels.                     1. Extended problem solving In this situation,such as the decision to take a long-haul holiday, the consumer is likely to have a deep level of commitment, to make a detailed search for information, and to make an extensive comparison of the alternatives.           2. Limited problem solving In this situation, the consumer will have some degree of knowledge or experience already, but many factors will be taken for granted and the information search will be far more limited. A Second holiday at a favorite skiing destination maybe purchased in this way.     3. Habitual problem solving This is repeat purchase of a tried and tested short break or day excu

Corporate Governance

With the growing space of the indian economy and increase in the complexity of business operations, the forms of corporate organisations keep on changing. The thinking of corporate toward shareholders/stock holders have also been changed and now they are trying to fullfill the expectations of stakeholders. Corporate governance is the mechanism by which the values,principles. policies and procedures of a company are inculcated and manifested. Corporate governance is the method by which the aforesaid objectives are achieved. The common corporate goal was '' Prosperity to all ''. According to narration given in Rigveda,''Corporate should work goal as Honybee, which takes the nectar of a flower  without the losing its shape and fragrance and work provided honey for the well being society.   DEFINITION OF CORPORATE GOVERNANCE  In a narrow sense, corporate governance involves a set of relationship among the company's management, its board of directors, share

Public Administration

Public administration is a system through which the government carries out its business of ruling and controlling effectively. Maintaining public administration  is the first foremost responsibility of any government. The aim of educating people in public administration is to train them in democratic values such as equality, justice, security, effectiveness and order. It also prepares such human resources who can critically analyze and review public policies of the government. These public administration are enabled to bear the responsibility of determining the policies and programmes of the government like planning, organizing, directing, coordinating and controlling of government operation. Because of the specific training in public administration, execution and direction .      Branches of public administration are below. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT The function of human resource management is to equip the employees with the capabilities to manage records, promotion and