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Career opportunities in Geophysics

Geophysics, a branch  of Earth  sciences,is the study  of the Earth by quantitative physical  methods, especially  by seismic, electromagnetic and radioactivity method. The theories  and techniques of geophysics  are employed extensively in the planetary sciences in general. Geophysics has increased dramatically man's ability to exploit  natural resources. Human senses cannot detect variations in the earth's gravitation field of one parts per millions. Seismology, the primary method of petroleum exploration, requires exact timing and recording of very low-amplitude vibrators, vibration that is far below that which a human would sense. Geophysicists are involved in field investigation, laboratory studies and experiments, data collection from instruments placed below the earth's surface and from satellites hundreds of kilometers above the surface; data processing and analysis using some of the world's most potent supercomputer and drilling wells thousands of meters  dee

Kidney failure causes

Acute Renal Failure Acute kidney diseases are characterized by abrupt onset of  kidney related symptoms with or without decrease in kidney function. Which come up in  day to  week time and must often recovers in 3 months period. It  is a clinical syndrome  characterized by abrupt onset and rapid deterioration of kidney function(GFR), progressing over day to weeks resulting in accumulation of waste products like urea,creatinine and potassium etc.This must often recovers fully. Acute kidney failure is commonly associated with aliguria(urine output of( <500 ml/24hrs) In  small number of patients  however urine output may be normal or increased                                               Causes of Acute Renal Failure  Pre renal acute kidney injuries:  Decreased blood supply to kidney. Abnormality before kidney: heart failure or condition with loss of blood volume due to hemorrhage. Intra renal acute kidney injuries :  abnormalities within kidney.  Post renal acu

Higher Studies in Pure science

BACHELOR OF SCIENCE     Bsc. Among the oldest, yet most popular course,offer a number of traditional as well as upcoming application-based specialisation. These include biochemistry, biotechnology, botony, chemistry, computer science, genetic engineering, geology, information technology, life science, math, microbiology, molecular biology,physics,statics and zoology.The duration of the programme is three years. Once students specialise in a subject at the undergraduate level, they can opt for an MSc in the same discipline or switch their specialisation.                                                                                                                  

Renal regulation of solutes- electrolytes and metabolic waste.

Electrolyte Balance Changes in the concentration of electrolytes in the body may be due to changes in the amount of water or the amount of electrolytes. Sodium is the most common of the cations that exists in the extracellular fluid. As it is excreted through urine, it's balance in body is maintained by kidney. When the amount of sodium is decreased, aldosterone production is increased and an increased amount of sodium is re-absorbed by kidney. The  secretion of the aldosterone is influenced by ACTH from Pituitary gland by a fall in the concentration of sodium in the blood and by renin produced in the kidney. Water Balance Water constituents about 60 percent of adult human body weight. It is distributed in the body in 3 main  compartments, Blood Plasma-   5% of body weight. Interstitial Fluid- 11% of body weight. Intracellular Fluid- 44% of body weight.                                          Water is taken into the body through the alimentary canal and s

Advantage and Disadvantage of Dialyser reuse for next Dialysis

Advantages   1.  Allows more widespread use of costier dialyser(e.g.high KoF, high flux synthetic membrance with their benefits). 2.  Reduced exposure to residual industrial chemicals used in the manufacture of the new dialyser. 3. Reduced incidence of intradialytic symptoms(controversial). 4.  Enhansed dialyser biocompatibility or reduced immune system activation (with unsubstituted  cellulose membrances and  when bleach is not used in  reprocessing). 5.  Reduction in treatment cost. Disadvantages 1.  Potential for exposure of patient and  personnel to chemicals. 2.  Potential for bacterial or endotoxin contamination of dialyser. 3.  Potential for loss of dialyser mass transfer (clearance) and ultrafiltration capacity. 4.  Potential for transmission of an infectious agents from one dialyser to another during  reprocessing.

Robot in the Service of Mankind

 A robot working as a watchman and even calling the police when required. A robot serving tea for you and removing trays from your table. Just imagine a scenario ! A nursing robot holding  a patient in its arms, washing  him and then putting him back in bed. A  robot washing  clothes, arranging tables even taking your dog out for a walk. A robot cleaning and polishing the floor  faster than a human worker. Robots  playing  cassette tapes or pianos , producing fascinating  sounds, telling stories to entertain children. Robots helping in agricultural operation - a mobile cybernetic pig-tender, an automatic milker, a fruit -picking gardener robot and  the sheep-shearing  robot.                          The Czech word ' robota ' means servitude or forced labour. It is because of this characterisation of  a robot in capek's play that people began to visualise a robot  as a monstrous human-like machine, something  to be afraid of.  Such fear  is dipicted  in mary Shelly

Retail Industry

The retailing industry covers a wide range of businesses like department stores, supermarkets, mail order firms, local shops and some manufacturing companies that sell directly to the public. Even  when goods are sold electronically, that is also considered as retailing. The retail sector includes all shops and stores that sell goods to shoppers, i.e., the ultimate consumers. The shoppers buy the products for personal and not business use. Supermarkets are usually grocery stores that sell an array of fresh and preserved food, take-out meals etc. and some also have exclusive departments for baked goods and confectionary, pharmacies, florists, and even health and beauty products. Large supermarkets even have non-food items such as household goods, greeting cards, and may even house a food court.                                         Department stores  normally stock apparel, home furnishings, major household appliances, etc. Different types of merchandise are normally arranged in

Career in public relation

Public  Relation as a means of influencing attitudes can greatly expedite the social adaptations required for our material  advancement by influencing public opinion. Changes are being felt in various spheres of society, particularly in the life styles and attitudes, for the current changes in society are basically because of shifts in public attitudes whether they are in business, education, science or technology. Public Relation are rapidly gaining  attention worldwide. Public Relation  is synonymous with management job, and monitoring, evaluating and maintaining mutual relations and creating an understanding between an organisation and the public.                                                         THE JOB How The public perceives you or your organization is an important factor for  one's market standing and this precisely is the job of public relation  officer. PROs play crucial role in creating  and maintaining relationships within as well as outside the organizati

What is dialysis

Dialysis  is process in which the removal of extra fluid and nitrogenous waste from patients blood stream to maintain electrolytes balance in  the body of Kidney failure patients. Types of Dialysis   1.  Hemodialysis The  process of hemodialysis  is an intense, intermittent therapy. Major dialytic function(clearance of solute and fluid removal or ultrafiltration) are accomplished over relatively short time periods.                Hemodialysis  require direct access to the circulation either via a native arteriovenous fistula or arteriovenous graft usually made of polytetrafluroethylene. A large bore intravenous device attached to intravascular catheter. blood is pumped through hallow fibers of an artificial kidney(dialyser)bathed with a solution of favourable chemical composition. It  uses bicarbonate to provide base equivalent. 2.   Peritoneal Dialysis The process of peritoneal dialysis in which involves the transport of solutes and water across a peritoneal membrane th

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